1. McClintock to Stephen Olin, Sept. 12, 1848. McClintock Papers, Emory University. First Fifty Years of Cazenovia Seminary, 1825-1875 (Cazenovia, N.Y., 1877), p. 67.

2. To Olin, Oct. 16, 1848. McClintock Papers.

3. William H. Allen in Dickinsonian, April 6, 1875, p. 81.

4. Trustee Minutes, July 12, 1849.

5. Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary, Oneida Conference and Troy Conference Academy, Poultney, Vt. Peck's article, "Conference Academies," appears in the Christian Advocate and Journal, Jan. 7, 1845.

6. Moncure D. Conway in Dickinsonian, Monthly Edition, Nov., 1899, p. 43.

7. Ibid., pp. 43-44. Smith's case appears in Faculty Minutes, Feb. 12, 23, 1849. Smith had become intoxicated "under the impulse of the moment," and was returned to his class after a plea from his mother and a pledge of good behavior. Conway, in Dickinsonian, Feb. 2, 1875, states that the trick was concocted during a card game, and that he signed the letter, "Hugh Blair." It may be surmised that this reflects his feeling toward the Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres of Nisbet's countryman and contemporary, long republished in America as a school and college text. According to Wilson Lee Spottswood, Brief Annals (Harrisburg, 1888), pp. 77-78, members of the Conference at Staunton thought the incident "a very amusing joke," a feeling not shared by Peck. See also Boyd Lee Spahr, Dickinson Doings (Mount Holly, Pa., 1900), pp. 15-29.

8. Faculty Minutes, Sept. 13, 1849.

9. Albert Osborn, John Fletcher Hurst (N.Y. & Cin., 1905), pp. 27, 247.

10. Oct., 1850. DCA.

11. Conway in Dickinsonian, Monthly Edition, Nov., 1899, p. 44.

12. Thomas G. Chattle, "The Oyster Hunt in Cumberland Valley," Dickinsonian, April, 1877, pp. 49-50.

13. Ibid. David D. Leib, "Student Diary Tells of Days before Civil War," Dickinson Alumnus, vol. 15 (Sept., 1937), p. 21. Horatio C. King, "Reminiscences," Dickinsonian, April, 1882.

14. Faculty Minutes, April 10, 12, 1851. Statement by the junior Class, April 16, 1851, DCA, "through Mr. Buchanan to the Faculty, admitting their fault." American Volunteer, April 10, 17, 24, 1851.

15. Board of Trustees, Executive Committee Minutes, May 11, 1852. DCA. Jesse T. Peck, God in Education: A Discourse to the Graduating Class of Dickinson College (Wash., 1852).

16. Horatio C. King, "Mother Dickinson," Dickinsonian, Oct. 4, 1875, tells how they "undertook to scrape him down as they had Dr. Peck," at his first evening chapel. The scraping feet drowned his voice, but the voice went on until, with the supper hour long past, it prevailed. Charles Collins, diary, Sept. 12, 1852, DCA, describes his first sermon: "What a field to cultivate! I want the hearts of these young men. How shall I win their affections & how acquire that influence over them that shall enable me to lead them to Christ?  Let this be my study. For this great work, O God, prepare me." See also Horatio C. King, "History of Dickinson College," American University Magazine, vol. 6 (1897), p. 31.

17. Collins, diary, July 14, 1853.

18. May 11, 18, 1853.

19. Trustee Minutes, July 13, 1853. Medals, ibid., July 8, 1857, the gift of John Gregg of Philadelphia.

20. Mary Dillon quoted in Two Hundred Years in Cumberland County (Carlisle, 1951), p. 224.

21. Christian Philip Humrich Class of 1852, to Samuel K. Davis, DCA, "We recite latin to Tiffany and he does not explain it. While I recited latin to Prof Crooks I got along very well and understood it also .... We recite Greek to Crooks and he explains it and makes us studdy hard .... He makes us translate and wright out all the parsing."

22. Rufus E. Shapley "Dickinson of Forty Years Ago," Dickinsonian, April, 1900, p.234.

23. His Heroditi Orientalia Antiquiora; comprising mainly such portions of Heroditus as give a connected History of the East to the Fall of Babylon and the Death of Cyrus the Great went through five editions, 1854-68. "The Library therefore," Johnson states in a draft for an article, DCA, "is the essential foundation of the College. This is first. Every thing else is secondary & subordinate."

24. Mrs. Mary C. Dillon, author of eight novels, 1904-20. In Old Bellaire, 1906, has Carlisle as its romantic background.

25. E.g., accounts of James H. Graham's "Carlisle Land Association." DCA.

26. A Sketch of Dickinson College (Harrisburg, 1879), pp. 70-71.

27. Diary of Horatio C. King. DCA. Charles W. Super,. A Pioneer College and its Background (Salem, Mass., 1923), p. 33.

28. Trustee Minutes, July 11, 1849.

29. Shapley, p. 234.

30. Faculty Minutes, June 20, 1855. Trustee Minutes, July 11, 1855.

31. Shapley, p. 235.

32. Trustee Minutes, July 11, 1860. Peck had suggested the idea to John McClintock, Nov. 2, 1850. McClintock Papers.

33. Faculty Minutes, Dec. 15, 1854.

34. Belles Lettres Minutes, April 23, 1856. DCA. Faculty Minutes, April 2, 1860.

35. Trustee Minutes, July 7, 8, 1859.

36. Ibid. June 25, 1851.

37. Saul Sack, History of Higher Education in Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, 1963), vol. 1, pp. 368-69.

38. Trustee Papers, 1837, Folder V1. DCA. Ruth E. White, History of the Methodist Church in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. 1792-1954 (n.p., n.d.), pp. 14-17, 43.

39. "We were trained to write and speak with care, and to avoid anything like the heat and rant which so easily beset the preacher," Moncure D. Conway, Autobiography (Boston & N.Y., 1904), vol. 1, p. 54. Osborn, pp. 33-34, 38-39. Two Hundred Years, p. 227.

40. Faculty Minutes, Feb. 16:'1844.

41. Architect's drawings in DCA. "Such a grand building, with its Gothic windows and fine walnut wood-work and red carpets in the aisles!" Mary Dillon in Two Hundred Years, p. 227. A program of the dedication, Nov. 14, 1858, is in the James Hamilton Papers, HSP.

42. Trustee Minutes, July 12, 1854.

43. Himes, p. 110

44. King, diary, June 13, 1856.

45. Trustee Minutes, July 11, 1855. King, diary, May 20, 1857. Two Hundred Years, pp. 177-79.

46. Charles Collins, subscription book for painting and repair, 1857. DCA. Portraits of Nisbet, Peck, Emory, Caldwell, Trustee Minutes, July 12, 1854.

47. Board of Trustees, Executive Committee Minutes, July 1, 1851. Trustee Minutes, July 8, 1857, show $1,600 still owed for the roof.

48. Tax exemption in An Act to Incorporate the German Reformed Congregation of Harbaugb's Church in Washington Township, Franklin County, and to Exempt the Real Estate of Dickinson College in Carlisle from Taxation, signed by Gov. Francis R. Shunk, April 10, 1848; authorized copy, March 4, 1857. Sidewalk construction would be a long-standing issue with the Borough. In 1857 the College owed both construction and penalty charges.

49. Endowment of Dickinson College. Argument Exhibiting the Basis of the Plan. Submitted by H. M. Johnson to the trustees, Feb. 18, 1852. In this later summation he stresses the urgency of action (p. 5). Allegheny and three other Methodist Colleges have adopted the plan. "Jefferson College, at Canonsburg, heretofore a powerful rival, is full on the course. We shall soon be surrounded and eaten out if we remain as we are."

50. Trustee Minutes, June 26, 1851.

51. Charles Collins, diary, Jan. 26, 1854. DCA.

52. Trustee Minutes, July 12, 1854.

53. Himes, pp. 79-80.

54. King, "History," p. 26, states that $100,000 was subscribed but only $60,000 realized. H. M. Johnson, Collegiate Education (circular letter, Aug., 1863), gives the figure as "about $70,000."

55. Collins report, Trustee Minutes, July 11, 1855: "no embarrassment from excess of numbers & the financial difficulties have been provided for." Architects' plans for dormitories in DCA.

56. Himes, p. 80. James Henry Morgan, Dickinson College (Carlisle, 1933), pp. 302-04.

57. East Baltimore Conference Minutes, 1860, Report of the Committee on Dickinson College. DCA.

58. Trustee Papers, 1858.

59. Trustee Minutes, July 13, 1848, resolution recognizing Dickinson Seminary as "preparatory to this institution." Charles Scott Williams, History of Lycoming College and its Predecessor Institutions, Williamsport Academy, Dickinson Seminary, Williamsport Dickinson Junior College (Balt., 1959). Sack, pp. 164-67. John McClintock reported "double-dealing" to Robert Emory, Feb., 1845, McClintock Papers: "There will be an attempt made to disconnect Pennington Seminary from us—or, rather, to say that it never was connected with us."

60. Spottswood, p. 273.

61. John McClintock to Robert Emory, Aug. 30, 1845, McClintock Papers, suggested "An Education Society" to aid indigent young men, "preachers and others." Faculty Minutes, Oct. 28, 1851, appoint H. M. Johnson to draft a constitution. Draft of Constitution in DCA. Johnson, in Trustee Minutes, June 23, 1863, reports limitation to ministry. Ibid., June 28, 1882, reports a balance of only $2.54, due to non-payment of loans.

62. Horatio C. King, "College Reminiscences," Dickinsonian, Feb. 4, 1873, p. 37.

63. King, "History," p. 33. The class entered with 108 regular and irregular students, in Sophomore year was reduced to 45 regulars and in Senior year to 36, as cited in Dickinsonian, April, 1878, p. 1.

64. DCA.

65. David Clarke John, "Dickinson in '59," Dickinsonian, Monthly Edition, Jan., 1900, p. 135. Charles W. Super in Dickinsonian, Dec. 2, 1915.

66. Trustee Minutes, July 13, 1853.

67. King, diary, Dec. 5, 1856, etc.

68. Trustee Minutes, July 8, 1840, record the recommendation of a new and larger bell by Durbin. In fact and legend, assaults on the bell, thefts of the clapper and other devices to silence it are legion. Vide Spahr, pp. 117-19; Super, pp. 30-31.

69. McClintock Papers.

70. King, diary, Dec. 7, 1855: "Greased Tiffany's boards with fish oil." Ibid., Jan. 24, 30, 1856. King, "Reminiscences," pp. 16-17. Faculty Minutes, Feb. 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 1856. William T. Kinzer, diary, Feb. 2, 1856, Virginia Historical Society: "Great times! A college rebellion! . . . I heard that the President said the College is in a critical condition." Albert H. Slape to James Andrew Munroe, Feb. 4, 1856, DCA: "Our Class Forever! Great excitement in old Dickinson! Students in direct rebellion. One hundred on the point of leaving for their homes!! ... I don't suppose the walls of East College ever saw such a rebellion." Sophomores were accused, but Freshmen, juniors and Seniors also took part. "I tell you Munroe we have a bully class numbering about fifty and they are all tip top fellows, study hard and care for nobody. " New York Daily Tribune, Feb. 5, 1856: "DIFFICULTY AT DICKINSON COLLEGE. One hundred of the students ... have rebelled against the Faculty in consequence of the alleged unjust expulsion of four members."

71. Faculty Minutes, April 28, 1852: Johnson's room "so full of pepper as to of recitation " King "Reminiscences." cites Marshall as braving it out, and McClintock declaring asafedita inhalations good for his asthma anyway. "It was attar of roses to him."

72. Faculty Minutes, May 15, 1854.

73. King, diary, Feb. 22, 1856; "Got a good joke on him."

74. John, p. 135. King, diary, March 16, 1858, mentions the "Night Hawks" as active in the suppression of Smith's Mechanics,

75. King, diary.

76. Ibid. Horatio C. King, "The Inquest Adjourned," Dickinsonian, April 6, 1875, pp. 73-74. Spahr, pp. 127-33. It must be added that the book by Oberlin's first president, Asa Mahan, A System of Intellectual Philosophy (2nd ed., N.Y., 1847, Harper), hardly deserved the obloquy cast upon it.

77. The "duel" is recounted in Dickinsonian, June, 1883, and March 21, 1935. Collins' purchase "of a fine Achromatic Telescope, manufactured by Henry Fitz, Esq. of N.Y.," is reported in Trustee Minutes, July 8, 1857; and its use in the observation of students by King in Dickinsonian, Nov., 1882.

78. Osborn, p. 51

79. J. P. Durbin, address to students, Sept. 19, 1840, DCA: "No play South of the Buildings, and no football at all on the Campus." John Reed in David McClure's A System of Education for the Girard College for Orphans (Phila., 1838), p. 18. Osborn, pp. 35-37.

80. Faculty Minutes, Sept. 24 and Dec. 12, 1853; Feb. 17, 1854.

81. King, diary, April 30, 1855.

82. Himes, letters home, May 2, June 10, 1853. DCA. Record book of Cadets, 1857-59. DCA. King, diary, March 14, 1847.

83. Faculty Minutes, April 7, 1857.

84. The idea originated with Horatio King, Al Slape, Tom Conrad and others, as related by King, Dickinsonian, April 28, 1915. See also Super in Dickinsonian, March 10 and Dec. 2, 1915.

85. Super, Dickinsonian, Dec. 2, 1915.

86. John Peach to James H. Morgan, Jan. 24, 1914. DCA.

87. James Fowler Rusling, "Class of 1854," Dickinsonian, May 13, 1914, p. 6.

88. King, diary, Jan. 26, 1857. "Romeo and Juliet" was in rehearsal, with Tom Conrad as Lady Capulet. Faculty Minutes, April 2, 1860, on minus marks.

89. Belles Lettres Minutes, May 26, 1852.

90. Faculty Minutes, Nov. 24, 1854.

91. Frederic S. Klein, The Spiritual and Educational Background of Franklin and Marshall College (Lancaster, 1939), pp. 171-72. Belles Lettres Minutes, April 27, 1857. Petition of the societies, July 8, 1857. Trustees Papers, DCA.

92. Catalogue of the Union Philosophical Society, Dickinson College (Carlisle, 1896), P. 6: "General Union Philosophical Society" organized, 1844, "in order to perpetuate the earnestness and enthusiasm in the breasts of our Brother Unions."

93. King, diary, Nov. 1, 1858: the initiation "a fiery ordeal." Himes, p. 85, describes the gold badges introduced in 1852.

94. Francis Wayland, Thoughts on the present Collegiate System in the United States (Boston, 1842), pp. 123-24.

95. Frederick Rudolph, The American College and University: a History (N.Y., 1962), pp. 148-49.

96. Constitution and Minutes, "Eclectic Society of Dickinson College." DCA. Carl F. Price, Wesleyan's First Century (Middletown, Conn., 1932), pp. 43, 246.

97. Faculty Minutes, July 3, 1872. Trustee Minutes, July 7, 1852, with Peck's report calling for a prohibition of unauthorized secret societies, p. 218, and trustee discussion "with closed doors," p. 226. It may be assumed that Peck led an opposition in which he had support from the clergy of the conferences.

98. Faculty Minutes, June 10, 11, 13, 18, 22, 1853. Trustee Minutes, July 13, 1853.

99. King, diary, Oct. 31, 1856, and elsewhere, records initiations of Slape, Cloud and Conrad, furnishing of hall, etc. Faculty Minutes, Nov. 23, 30, 1857, on requirement to disband. Himes, pp. 9-10, 12.

100. Carlisle Herald, May 31, 1854: "We hear it whispered about that an association of the mysterious order of the Know Nothings, which has suddenly grown into such wonderful strength throughout the country and has turned the schemes of politicians topsy-turvy in so many places, has been organized in Carlisle." An address "To the Officers and Members of the American Party in the State of Pennsylvania," HSP, is signed, "O. H. Tiffany, President of the State Council of Pa.," and dated, "Carlisle, August 10th, 1855." In Carlisle, the American Volunteer fulminates against the order and the involvement of Prof. Tiffany and others of the College in it, and finally, Aug. 23, 1857, cites the ill will brought on the faculty "by their constant dabbling in politics.... But we gained our point which was to drive them from their Know Nothing lodges to their duties in the College."

101. The Temple. A Monthly Magazine, devoted to Masonry, Literature and Science, was published at Carlisle, 1851-52, with Prof. Blumenthal as co-editor, serializing his novel, "Ellen Fisher," his articles on Masonry in Portugal, and others by W. H. Allen, including Allen's account of the large delegation from Carlisle to the Masonic funeral of Stephen Girard.

102. William C. Round, diary, April 13, 1861. Louis Round Wilson Papers, University of North Carolina.

103. King, diary, April 9, 1858.

104. Trustee Minutes, July 12, 1848.

105. Chattle, p. 49.

106. James P. Sterrett to James A. Devinney, Sept. 13, 1845, DCA, with explanation of the boarding clubs at Jefferson College. Collins' report describing clubs at Dickinson, Trustee Minutes, July 9, 1856. Kinzer, diary, March 20, Oct. 3, 1856. Super, Pioneer College, p. 35.

107. Kinzer, diary, Nov. 4, 10, 1856. King, diary, Nov. 10, 1856.

108. John,p.135.

109. King, diary, June 19, 1856.

110. Collins, diary, Dec. 2, 1854; Jan. 17, 1859; March to May, 1860.

111. Trustee Minutes, July 11, 1860.

112. Horatio C. King, Songs of Dickinson (N.Y., 1900), pp. 18-19.

113. Two Hundred Years, p. 229.

114. Trustee Minutes, July 11, 1860. The motion was tabled, and a committee appointed "on means of relieving the College from pecuniary embarrassment."

115. East Baltimore Conference Minutes, 1861. DCA. The legislature responded with its act of April 29, 1862, authorizing the College to borrow up to $15,000.

116. Trustee Minutes, Dec. 4, 1861.

117. H. M. Johnson, To the Members and Friends of the Methodist Episcopal Church, printed circular, Nov. 14, 1861. DCA.

118. Charles W. Super in Dickinsonian, May 5, 1909, p. 7.

119. Two Hundred Years, p. 226.

120. C. F. R., "How the Boys of '65 disposed of the Doctor," Dickinsonian, Nov., 1875, p. 3. Super in Dickinsonian, May 5, 1909, p. 7.

121. John Bakeless, "Captain Conrad's Spy Net," SL 4, pp. 159-72. Milton E. Flower, "Dickinson College and the Civil War," Dickinson Alumnus, vol. 39 (Feb., 1962), pp. 1-8.

122. Trustee Minutes, June 25, 1862.

123. Jessie S. Colton, ed., The Civil War Journal and Correspondence of Matthias Baldwin Colton (Phila., 1931), pp. 84-85.

124. Charles F. Himes to Ogden N. Rood, Oct. 2, 1863. Himes Papers, DCA.

125. Burning of the Barracks and a tour of the College appear in the diary of Assistant Surgeon William W. Marston, C.S.A., June 27-30, 1863. Property of Henry Lee Curry, Richmond, Va.; citation courtesy of Bell I. Wiley from copy at Emory University. Himes, p. 73, cites several shells failing on campus, one penetrating Johnson's lecture room in East, another the roof of South.

126. Thomas M. Johnson to Fred P. Corson, Oct. 20, 1939. DCA.

127. Trustee Minutes, June 24, 1863.

128. Board of Trustees, Executive Committee Minutes, Sept. 19, 1863.

129. East Baltimore Conference Minutes, 1864, p. 232. DCA. Announcement in American Volunteer, Sept. 1, 1864, Rev. R. D. Chambers, President, assisted by Samuel D. Hillman. Rev. William C. Leverett's Mary Institute, founded in 1861, appears in American Volunteer, Aug. 26, 1869, as a more successful competitor.

130. Trustee Minutes, June 27, 1865.

131. Ibid. See also Sack, vol. 2, p. 610.

132. East Baltimore Conference Minutes, 1867, 1868, DCA, echo Johnson's recommendation on the "Biblical Department" with warm approval. Sack, vol. 1, pp. 329-30, quotes Acting President Hillman's report, Trustee Minutes, June 23, 1868, as evidence of the post-Civil War trend toward secularization in the colleges.

133. Trustee Minutes, June 28, 1865.

134. Board of Trustees, Executive Committee Minutes, Feb. 17, 1865. Pennell Coombe, correspondence and reports. DCA.

135. Coombe to Buchanan, April 29, May 3, 6, 1865; Buchanan to Coombe, May 2, 1865. Buchanan Papers, HSP.

136. Over view of West College, "Sunday School Centenary Offering" and "Religion and Science." Manufactured by Warner and Sons, Philadelphia. Trustee Minutes, June 26, 1867, offer two twenty-year scholarship certificates to Sunday schools contributing $500. Himes, p. 81.

137. Board of Trustees, Executive Committee Minutes, Sept. 20, 1865. Dickinson Commercial College was established Sep. 1, 1864, according to its catalogue, 1867. DCA.

138. Trustee Minutes, June 24, 1868. Himes, pp. 87, 130-31.

139. Himes, pp. 117-18.

140. Trustee Minutes, June 28, 1865.

141. Himes, pp. 118-19.

142. Ibid, pp. 112-14, 120-22.

143. Ibid, pp. 127-28. Dickinson College, Microcosm, 1867-68, p. 15.

144. Shadrach L. Bowman, Special Report. Proposed Plan for the Enlargement of the Biblical Department of Dickinson College, dated June, 1867, presented, 1868. Trustees Papers, June 23, 1868, Folder IV. DCA.

145. Trustee Minutes, June 24, 1868.

146. Board of Trustees, Executive Committee Minutes, Jan. 6, 1866; April 27, 1868.

147. Dickinson College, Board of Trustees, "Dickinson College's Interest in the Income from the Dickinson Fund of the Education Fund of the Philadelphia Conference of the United Methodist Church," 1969. DCA.

148. Trustee Minutes, June 25, 1867, pp. 216, 218.

149. Treasurers Papers, DCA, show Johnson travelling much in pursuit of funds. His own resources were exhausted and the College in debt to him at his death.

150. Trustee Minutes, June 24, 1868, p. 276.

151. William H. Allen to John Francis Bird, Sept. 4, 1868. DCA.

152. Erastus O. Haven, University of Michigan, to trustees, Aug. 29, 1868. DCA. Robert Gildart, Albion College, 1835-1960 (Albion, Mich., 1961), pp. 94-96. Jocelyn was President of Albion, 1864-69 and 1871-77.