1. Vicesmus Knox, Essays, Moral and Literary (London, 1803), vol. 2, pp. 103 ff., laments a situation at Oxford deserving "not only the severity of censure but the utmost poignancy of ridicule."  Sir Alexander Grant, The Story of the University of Edinburgh (London, 1884), vol. 1, p. 270,  compares the wealth, beauty and stagnant intellectual life of eighteenth-century Oxford with the intellectual vigor of "the small, poverty-stricken, ill-housed University of Edinburgh."

2. To Richard Price, April 22, 1786. Lyman H. Butterfield, ed., Letters Of Benjamin Rush (Princeton, 1951), vol. 1, p. 388.

3. George P. Schmidt, The Old Time College President (N.Y., 1930), p. 75.

4. The Presidents of Dartmouth and of Trinity, North Carolina, quoted by Frederick Rudolph, The American College and University: A History (New York, 1962), p. 139.

5. George P. Schmidt, The Liberal Arts College (New Brunswick,, N.J., 1957), p. 35.

6. Sensation, Retention, Perception, Association, Observation, Attention, Abstraction, Memory, Understanding, Wit, Ratiocination and Imagination, as listed by David McClure in A System of Education for the Girard College for Orphans (Phila., 1838), chart opp. p. 16.

7. The Centennial Memorial of the Presbytery of Carlisle (Harrisburg, 1889), vol. 2, p. 167.

8. Schmidt, Liberal Arts College p. 53.

9. Julian P. Boyd, ed., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 7, p. 686.

10. To Charles Wallace, Sept. 2, 1790. Bulletin of the New York Public Library, vol. 1 (1897), p. 119.

11. In a letter to Principal-Elect Nisbet, Aug. 27, 1784, Rush describes the newly designed seal of their college: “The device consists of a Bible, a Telescope, and a Cap of Liberty-the two last placed over the first. The motto is Pietate et Doctrina tuta libertas. This Excellent sentiment was suggested by our worthy governor Mr. Dickinson.” Butterfield, vol. 1, p. 335.